Gypsy Moths in Rhode Island
Gypsy moths and their larvae (caterpillars) are always present in the environment. Usually unnoticed and causing little concern, their numbers are controlled by a naturally occurring virus, Nucleopolyhedrosis (NPV), and fungus, Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophaga), which typically kills the majority of caterpillars before they reach adulthood.
Beginning in mid-late April and continuing through late June, the caterpillars will consume leaves of many species of broadleaf trees and shrubs – such as oaks, aspen, apple, speckled alder, basswood, gray and river birch, and willow. Less desired but still attacked are maple, black, yellow, and paper birch, cherry, cottonwood, elm, black gum, hickory, hornbeam, larch and sassafras. Older gypsy moth larvae devour foliage of several species that younger larvae normally avoid, such as hemlock, and pines and spruces native to the East.
Gypsy moth caterpillars avoid ash, balsam fir, butternut, black walnut, catalpa, red cedar, flowering dogwood, American holly, locust, sycamore, and yellow or tulip poplar, and shrubs such as mountain laurel, rhododendron, and arborvitae. Also consumed, but not preferred are needles of conifers – such as pines, spruces, and firs. Feeding usually occurs during night hours, but when populations are dense, caterpillars feed continuously day and night until the foliage of the host tree is stripped. They will then crawl to nearby trees in search of food.
Recently, gypsy moth numbers have increased dramatically, resulting in the caterpillar “outbreak” that led to severe defoliation of tree canopies throughout Rhode Island in 2015 and 2016. While the exact cause is unknown, it is believed that the successive years of warm, dry, spring weather was not conducive to NPV or Entomophaga. This resulted in an increase in the number caterpillars surviving to adulthood (moth stage), and therefore a large number of eggs masses for the next generation. A significant caterpillar infestation is anticipated in 2017, putting much of the trees in our state’s forests, parks, and urban green spaces at risk.
- USDA Forest Service: Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet, Gypsy moth
- USDA APHIS: Federal Regulations, Gypsy Moth Quarantine
- National Pesticide Information Center: Pesticide Fact Sheets
- Rhode Island Department of Health
- RIRCD: Forest Management
- RI Tree Council: Tree Care & General Information
- RI Woods: List of RI Certified Aborists (self-reported)
- Connecticut DEEP: Gypsy Moth in Connecticut
- Massachusetts EEA: Gypsy Moth Outbreak 2016